Google Analytics 4 for Mobile Apps: Tracking and Analysing App Performance

Data Analytics

In the dynamic and highly competitive world of mobile app development, understanding user interactions and app performance through data analytics provides a strategic advantage while enhancing customer experience.

Google Analytics 4’s cutting-edge platform revolutionises tracking, analysing, and interpreting user behaviour across various digital products. With its enhanced cross-platform tracking, AI-driven insights, and a user-centric approach, GA4 is not just an analytics tool—it’s a strategic asset for any business delivering digital experiences.

UA vs GA4 for Mobile App Tracking

Before we get started, it’s essential to understand the evolution of Google Analytics and how Google Analytics 4 (GA4) improves on its predecessor, Universal Analytics (UA).

Google designed UA with a focus on websites and web applications. The platform wasn’t suitable for modern digital products, which typically utilise a cross-platform environment, including web, mobile, TVs, wearables, and even appliances.

While UA could track these digital products, it required a separate account for each one. Organisations had to use additional tools, like BigQuery or BI, to combine the data for analysis. With GA4, you can visualise multiple data sources in a single account.

GA4’s more integrated and user-centric approach is crucial for today’s diverse digital landscapes. Here are some improvements that make GA4 better suited for mobile app tracking than UA.

Event-based data model

Unlike UA’s session-based model, GA4 employs an event-based data model. This shift allows for more nuanced and detailed tracking of user interactions within mobile apps. GA4 captures every user action as an event, providing richer insights into user behaviour.

Cross-platform tracking

GA4 tracks users across platforms seamlessly. While UA could track mobile and web separately, GA4 unifies this data into a single account using streams. This cross-platform tracking is vital for understanding the holistic user journey, especially for users who interact with your entire product ecosystem—i.e., iOS, Android, desktop apps, web apps, websites, etc.

Enhanced user engagement insights

GA4’s focus on user engagement offers granular insights into how users interact with your app. Metrics like engagement time, scroll depth, and video engagement are more sophisticated in GA4, offering a clearer picture of user interaction than UA.

Flexible and customisable event tracking

GA4 provides enhanced event tracking customisation without additional coding, a limitation often encountered in UA. This flexibility enables app developers and marketers to tailor tracking to their needs, capturing relevant user actions more effectively.

AI-powered insights and predictions

GA4 uses machine learning to provide predictive insights about user behaviour—a feature UA lacked. These AI-driven predictions can inform more strategic decisions for app development and marketing.

Improved user privacy controls

GA4 has improved privacy controls to align with stricter, ever-changing regulations like GDPR and CCPA. The platform automates many privacy protocols, making it easier for app developers to comply.

How to Set Up GA4 for Mobile Apps

GA4 uses data streams for each platform (mobile apps, web apps, websites, etc.) to maintain separate data collection and analysis. You’ll need to set up a data stream for each one—i.e., Android, iOS, web app, MacOS, Windows, etc.

GA4 setup for iOS and Android requires technical expertise and access to the app’s codebase. You’ll need developer assistance to install GA4 tracking in a mobile application. Metric Labs provides app developers with turnkey GA4 and data analysis solutions—contact us for a free discovery call.

Setting up an Android app data stream in GA4

Below is an overview of the Android setup for GA4. Check out Google’s official documentation for detailed instructions.

  1. Add Data Stream for Android: Navigate to ‘Admin,’ select your property, and add a new Android data stream.

  2. Integrate Firebase SDK: Download and integrate the Firebase SDK into your Android app.

  3. Link App to Firebase: In the Firebase console, add your Android app and follow the setup instructions.

  4. Connect Firebase to GA4: Link your Firebase project to the GA4 property to ensure data flow from the app to Google Analytics.

  5. Set Up Custom Events: Define and code custom events in your app as needed.

  6. Test and Debug: Use Firebase’s DebugView to ensure correct event tracking.

Setting up an iOS app data stream in GA4

Below is an overview of the iOS setup for GA4. Check out Google’s official documentation for detailed instructions.

  1. Add Data Stream for iOS: Go to ‘Admin,’ select your property, and add a new iOS data stream.

  2. Integrate Firebase SDK: Integrate the Firebase SDK into your iOS app to collect and send data from your app to GA4.

  3. Enable App Tracking Transparency (ATT): For iOS 14 and later versions, Apple’s ATT framework requires user consent before tracking their data across apps and websites. Ensure that ATT is implemented in your app to comply with Apple’s guidelines.

  4. Configure Data Streams in GA4: Configure the data streams in GA4 to specify the type of data you want to collect from your iOS app, including setting up events, user properties, and conversions relevant to your business goals.

  5. Link App to Firebase: Add your iOS app to the Firebase console and follow the setup instructions. This step is essential for linking your app to Firebase, which connects to GA4.

  6. Set Up Custom Events: Code and define necessary custom events within your iOS app.

  7. Test and Debug: Utilise Firebase’s DebugView to verify the accurate tracking of events.

Best practices for initial setup and configuration

GA4 has many features to customise the platform according to your product or tracking needs. Here are some best practices to ensure you leverage GA4’s full feature set:

  • Consistent Naming Conventions: Using clear, consistent naming for events and parameters to simplify data analysis.

  • Leverage Enhanced Measurement: Enable enhanced measurement features in GA4 for automatically tracking key interactions like page views and scrolls.

  • Configure Conversion Events: Identify your critical user actions as conversions for tracking pivotal interactions that drive value.

  • Use GA4 Configuration API: Utilise the GA4 Configuration API for advanced setup options, optimising data collection to suit your specific needs.

How to ensure you continuously collect accurate data

Testing and auditing your tracking is crucial to confirm everything works. These audits must align with app releases to ensure the update doesn’t impact tracking and data collection. Here are some steps we recommend to reduce errors:

  • Regularly Test and Validate Data: Use GA4’s Realtime report to monitor your app for discrepancies or missing data.
  • Set Up Data Filters: Implement data filters to exclude internal traffic and other non-relevant interactions for clean, reliable insights.
  • Audit Your Setup: Audit your GA4 setup, usually in line with app updates, to ensure GA4 events and data streams function correctly.
  • Stay Updated with GA4 Changes: Make sure your team monitors GA4 updates for platform changes and releases that could impact or enhance your tracking and data analysis.

Core Components of GA4 for Mobile App Tracking

User engagement metrics: understanding user interactions

GA4’s user engagement metrics offer a nuanced view of how users interact with your app:

  • Engagement Time: Measures the total time users spend in your app. It’s crucial for assessing app stickiness.

  • Engagement Rate: The percentage of actively engaged sessions. A higher rate indicates more compelling app content.

  • Active Users: Tracks daily, weekly, and monthly active users, offering insights into user retention and app popularity.

  • User Explorer: Provides individual user journey data, useful for personalised user experience analysis.

  • Event Count: The total number of events users trigger, reflecting their interactions with specific app features.

Event tracking: custom events vs. predefined events in GA4

GA4 allows predefined and custom events to enhance event tracking flexibility:

  • Predefined Events: These are built into GA4 and automatically tracked. For example, ‘app_start’ records each time a user launches the app. Predefined events simplify initial setup and provide basic analytics without additional coding.

  • Custom Events: These cater to specific analytics needs. For instance, if your app includes a tutorial, you can create a ‘tutorial_completed’ event. This flexibility lets you track unique interactions relevant to your app’s nature.

Custom events are pivotal for apps with unique functionalities or when specific user interactions need monitoring beyond GA4’s predefined events.

Conversion tracking: setting and measuring goals

Conversion tracking in GA4 is fundamental for measuring app success against your business objectives. 

For example, if a key goal is to increase in-app purchases, set up an event to track completed transactions. Monitoring this conversion helps gauge the effectiveness of your monetisation strategy.

Here’s how to set up conversion tracking for your mobile app:

  1. Access GA4 Events: Log into your GA4 property. Navigate to the ‘Events’ section in the left-hand menu. Here, you’ll see a list of events GA4 is already tracking for your app.

  2. Mark Events as Conversions: Identify the events you want to treat as conversions. These could be predefined events like ‘purchase’ or custom events specific to your app. You’ll find a toggle next to each event name to mark it as a conversion. Turn this toggle on for each event you want to track as a conversion.

  3. Create New Conversion Events: If the event you want to track as a conversion isn’t listed, you must create it. Click on ‘Create Event’ in the top right corner. You can either create an entirely new event or modify an existing one. For example, if you want to track ‘subscription starts’ as a conversion, but this event isn’t predefined, you would create it here.

  4. Configure Event Parameters: Specify the event name and parameters for new events. Parameters are the event’s details, like the purchase value. This step is crucial for conversions where the specifics matter, such as differentiating between various subscription tiers.

  5. Review and Validate Conversions: After setting up your conversions, you must validate that GA4 tracks them correctly. Use the ‘Realtime’ report in GA4 to monitor incoming data and ensure Google Analytics records your conversions as expected.

By carefully selecting and setting up conversion events in GA4, you gain valuable insights into critical user actions, helping you understand and optimise the user journey within your app.

Enhancing Mobile App Tracking With GA4's Advanced Capabilities

One of GA4’s most powerful features is its flexibility and versatility. App developers and marketers can use the platform’s advanced features and capabilities to gain deeper insights, enhance user experience, and optimise app performance. Here are a few ways to apply GA4’s advanced features.

User segmentation and audience building

GA4 allows for sophisticated user segmentation, enabling you to tailor your app’s content, offers, and notifications to specific user groups. You can analyse user behaviour and segment users based on key metrics like engagement, purchase history, or geographic location.

For example, a fitness app might segment users into ‘beginners’ and ‘advanced’ based on their activity levels. The app can enhance user engagement and retention by targeting these segments with personalised workout plans and challenges.

Cross-platform tracking and unified view of user interactions

GA4’s cross-platform tracking provides a holistic view of user interactions across web and mobile, enabling companies to visualise user journeys and optimise the entire customer experience.

For example, a retail app with a website can use cross-platform tracking to understand how users move between the app and the website. They can answer questions like, do customers purchase online or in-app more often? Do users browse in-app and prefer to purchase via the website or vice versa? 

Answering these questions allows product teams to develop better strategies and enhance the cross-platform experience to align with user behaviour. These tweaks can increase vital metrics like trust, loyalty, customer lifecycle, engagement, conversions, average cart value, etc.

Real-time reporting and analysis

GA4’s real-time reporting allows you to monitor user interactions as they happen. This immediate insight is invaluable for quickly identifying and responding to trends, issues, or opportunities.

For example, an online ticketing app can use real-time reporting during a high-demand event ticket launch. Suppose certain events attract unusually high traffic or encounter issues. The product team can swiftly take corrective actions, such as adjusting server capacity or fixing glitches.

Interpreting data for app improvements

Use GA4 to analyse user behaviour patterns, identify pain points, and uncover areas for improvement. Metrics like user engagement time, bounce rates, and event completions offer insights into how users interact with your app.

For example, an eCommerce app finds that users spend a lot of time on product pages but don’t proceed to checkout. Researchers can use this information to gather relevant user feedback and make necessary improvements.

A/B testing and user experience enhancements

A/B test to experiment with different app features, layouts, or content. GA4 can track the performance of each variant, helping you understand what works best for your audience.

For example, a music streaming app may A/B test a new player and user interface to determine which layout leads to longer session times and increased song plays.

Leveraging insights for marketing and retention strategies

Utilise GA4 to gain insights into user acquisition, behaviour, and retention. This data is critical to developing targeted marketing campaigns and retention strategies.

For example, a food delivery app uses GA4 insights to identify that users in some urban regions show a higher interest in healthy food options. To capitalise on this trend, they launch a targeted marketing campaign in those areas, featuring health-conscious restaurants and special discounts on healthy meals. They also introduce a loyalty program promoting healthier choices. 

These highly targeted campaigns allow marketers to deliver relevant ads to the right markets, improving key metrics like return on ad spend, CPMs, profit margins, etc.


GA4 marks a significant evolution in mobile app analytics, offering advanced features crucial for today’s digital products. Its capabilities in cross-platform tracking, AI-powered insights, and user-centric data analysis enable a deeper understanding of user behaviour and facilitate data-driven decision-making.

With its focus on flexibility, real-time analysis, and privacy compliance, GA4 is a technological advancement and a strategic asset for businesses aiming to stay ahead in a rapidly evolving digital ecosystem.

While GA4 is user-friendly, it requires data analytics expertise and technical knowledge to correctly install and track mobile apps.

Our data analytics team can help guide you through setup, tracking, and leveraging GA4’s advanced analytics to elevate your app’s performance. Contact Metric Labs for a free discovery call to unlock the full potential of GA4 for your mobile app.


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